Perceptual Refinement: Art-based Methods in Managerial Education
Organizational Aesthetics Cover Issue Vol. 1(1)

How to Cite

SpringborgC. (2012). Perceptual Refinement: Art-based Methods in Managerial Education. Organizational Aesthetics, 1(1), 116-137. Retrieved from


Art-based methods are increasingly used to facilitate meta-level learning in management education. Such increased use suggests that these methods are relevant and offer a unique contribution, meeting a need in today's management education. Yet, the literature is not clear on what this unique contribution is, even though it abounds with suggestions of varying quality. To explore this matter, I conducted a systematic literature review focused on art-based methods, management education, and meta-level learning. I found that the unique contribution of art-based methods is to foreground and facilitate the process of making and expressing more refined perceptual distinctions, not to get accurate data, but as a meta-level learning process in itself. This finding is important because it implies that using art-based methods to facilitate other meta-level learning processes, e.g., reflection, critical reflection, or transformative learning, may limit the potential of such art-based methods. It is also important because it suggests that future research regarding art-based methods could focus on exploring the impact of perceptual refinement on aspects such as: managerial practice, managers' concepts of managerial tasks, or managers' competence in carrying out managerial tasks.